Help and FAQ

Weighing Environment Logger (AD-1687)

Weighing data isn’t being saved.

  • Ensure that the RS-232C connector is all the way in.
  • Check to make sure that the AD-1687’s and the measuring instrument’s baud rate and parity settings are the same.

I wish to save weighing data at certain intervals.

  • If the balance has “interval output mode” (Models: FX-i/FZ-i, BM, HR-AZ/A)

    1: Using the balance’s instruction manual, turn on “interval output mode”.

    2: Change the “interval time” settings to match the interval at which you wish to record.

    3: Insert the balance’s RS-232C cable into the AD-1687 while the power is turned off.

    4: Initiate interval output from the balance (example: press the PRINT key on the balance)
    According to the interval time settings for the balance, measurement data will be transmitted to the AD-1687 and saved.

  • If the balance does not have “interval output mode”.

    1: Set the balance’s “data output mode” to “stream mode”, and set the “data output interval” to “1.6 seconds”
    * Because the AD-1687 cannot keep up with the transmission rate of stream mode, the intervals will go out of sync.
    It is for this reason that we advise setting to “1.6 seconds”.

    2: Insert the balance’s RS-232C cable into the AD-1687 while the power is turned off.

    3: Immediately after the cable is inserted, one can begin recording data at 1.6 second intervals.
    * Around 4 hours of data can be recorded.

I wish to send weighing data at certain intervals to a PC using real-time transfer mode.

  • Can only be used if the balance has “interval output mode”. (Models: FX-i/FZ-i, BM, HR-AZ/A)1: Using the balance’s instruction manual, turn on “interval output mode”.

    2: Change the “interval time” settings to match the interval at which you wish to record.
    Note: The balance’s “interval time” should be set to at least 10 seconds.
    If the interval is too short, saved data may be left out depending on the PC’s performance.

    3: Insert the balance’s RS-232C cable into the AD-1687 while the power is turned off.

    4: Insert a USB cable into the AD-1687, select “REAL TIME” and hit the ENTER key.

    5: Place the cursor on the application you would like to save to (EXCEL etc.)

    6: Initiate interval output from the balance (example: press the PRINT key on the balance)
    According to the interval time settings for the balance, measurement data and environmental data will be transmitted to the application.

Real-time transfer mode data isn’t being correctly imported into Excel.

Depending on the computer’s capabilities, Excel’s processing may not keep up and data may not be correctly inputted. Use method (1) or (2) to correctly record the data.

(1) Set the application for real-time transfer mode not to Excel, but to an application such as Notepad. When the transmission has finished, open the Notepad’s data with Excel.

(2) If you wish to transmit data to Excel, use the below method. (Windows XP only)

  1. Select “Regional and Language Settings” from the “Control Panel”
  2. Select the “Language” tab, and click “Details”
  3. Select the “Advanced” tab, check the “Turn off advanced text services” box, and press OK.

Certain items don’t appear in the option menu.

Depending on the AD-1687 operating state, the options which can be set will change.

  1. While conducting interval recording, fields besides “PRIMARY DATA (selection of the primary display) cannot be selected. To make changes, stop interval recording for a while.
  2. “USB” (USB function select) can only be selected when the AD-1687 and computer are connected via USB cable.
  3. When the AD-1687 is communicating with the computer, items besides “USB” (USB function select) cannot be chosen.

I changed some settings using the settings tool, but the changes aren’t taking effect.

  • To make the changes take effect, turn off and restart the AD-1687 after making changes using the setting tool.
  • For instructions on how to operate the setting tool, please refer to the “Setting Tool Instruction Manual”

Precautions when connecting to and using with a balance.

If the AD-1687 receives data from the balance in a format that cannot be processed, “Communication Error” will be displayed on the AD-1687.
If such an error occurs, please check the following settings.

  1. When connecting the balance and the AD-1687, make sure to connect the RS-232C cable to the AD-1687 while the power is off.
  2. For the balance’s “data output” settings, change “data number”, “ID number”, and “data/time” to “no output”.
    * The factory settings for the balance have “no output” set by default.
  3. Change the balance’s “data format” setting to something besides “CSV format”.
  4. Confirm that “baud rate” and “bit length, parity” are the same for the balance and the AD-1687.

When I check the saved CSV file data, the time when recording begins and all the times after the first one are out of sync.

When recording begins, the “ID number” saved in the CSV file is renewed, and because environmental data is saved after that, sometimes the initial time may be just slightly out of sync.

I’d like to set upper and lower limits and generate an alert.

  • With the AD-1687, upper and lower limits for temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure can be set and a HI LO warning can be displayed.
  • For usage instructions, please refer to the “AD-1687 Setting Tool Instruction Manual”

Selecting a Communication Method for Balances / Scales

What are the easiest ways to save weighing data?

  1. AD-1688 (Weighing Data Logger)
    As with USB flash memory, the AD-1688 stores weighing data (up to approx. 5,000 data sets) output via RS-232C from a balance or scale without requiring any special software.
    The weighing data, together with date and time, are saved in CSV file format, and can be transferred easily to a PC through a USB port. (No special software is required.)
    Dedicated power supply is not required. (Just connect the device to a weighing instrument or PC.)
    The AD-1688 is ideal for when a PC or printer cannot be installed near the balance, such as in a clean room or in an isolated location.
    With the casing cover, the AD-1688 is IP65 dust and waterproof.
    The AD-1688 is capable of one-way communication only. Therefore, it is not possible to control a balance or scale from a PC using the AD-1688.

    * If the AD-1688 is not detected by your PC
    Depending on your type of PC, if a USB extension cable is used, the signal may weaken and not be detected by the computer.
    Please either connect the AD-1688 directly to your PC without using a USB extension cable, or connect the AD-1688 to your computer using an off-the-shelf USB hub.

  2. AD-8527 (Quick USB Adapter)
    The AD-8527 transfers weighing data to a PC in real time via an RS-232C connection with a weighing instrument and a USB connection with a PC, without requiring any special software.
    The weighing data, together with date and time, can be sent directly into the application software you use, such as Excel, Word, and Notepad (on Windows 2000 or later).
    A dedicated power supply is not required. (Just connect the device to a weighing instrument or PC.)
    With the casing cover, the AD-8527 is IP65 dust and waterproof.
    The AD-8527 is capable of one-way communication only. Therefore, it is not possible to control a balance or scale from a PC using the AD-8527.

    * If the AD-8527 is not detected by your PC
    Depending on your type of PC, if a USB extension cable is used, the signal may weaken and not be detected by the computer.
    Please either connect the AD-8527 directly to your PC without using a USB extension cable, or connect the AD-8527 to your computer using an off-the-shelf USB hub.

  3. Quick USB
    By inserting a USB interface (Quick USB) into a balance, you can connect the balance and a PC using a USB cable and transfer weighing data from the balance directly to the PC (USB port).
    No special software is required. (Compatible with Windows 2000 or later.)
    Only weighing data can be sent. The data can be sent directly to the application software you use, such as Excel, Word, and Notepad.
    The Quick USB is capable of one-way communication only. Therefore, it is not possible to control a balance or scale from a PC using the Quick USB.
    Quick USB options are available for the following balances.
    – GH Series :   GH-02 (sold separately)
    – GX/GF Series (excl. GX-K/GF-K) :   GX-02 (sold separately)
    – FZ-i/FX-i, FZ-CT/FX-CT Series :   FXi-02 (sold separately)

How can we control a balance or scale from a PC as well as transferring the weighing data to the PC?

  1. AX-USB-9P / 25P / DIN (serial-USB converter & cable sets)
    These converter and cable sets convert the RS-232C output from a balance or scale and send it to a USB port of a PC.
    It is possible to perform bi-directional communication and receive GLP/GMP outputs.
    For data transfer, A&D offers WinCT (Windows Communication Tools) software, which can be downloaded from the A&D website free of charge.
    From the following three converters, please select the one that matches the RS-232C interface of your weighing instrument.

    Type of RS-232C Interface Applicable Serial-USB Converter    * Compatible with Windows98 SE or later
    D-Sub 9 Pin AX-USB-9P
    D-Sub 25 Pin AX-USB-25P
    DIN AX-USB-DIN
  2. RS-232C
    Many balances and scales are equipped with an RS-232C interface as standard. If your PC has a serial port (COM port), bi-directional communication can be established only by purchasing a connection cable that matches the interface of your weighing instrument.
    For data transfer, A&D offers WinCT (Windows Communication Tools) software, which can be downloaded from the A&D website free of charge.

How can we transfer weighing data from multiple balances or scales to one PC?

Using an Ethernet interface option, a PC can receive weighing data from multiple balances or scales.
Ethernet interface options come with the WinCT-Plus (Windows Communication Tools) software for data transfer.
– GH Series :   GH-08 (sold separately)
– FZ-i/FX-i, FZ-CT/FX-CT Series :   FXi-08 (sold separately)
– AD-4212A/B Series :   AD-4212A-08 (sold separately)
For other balances and scales, A&D offers the AD-8526 serial-Ethernet converter for sending weighing data from multiple instruments to a PC. The necessary cable to use the AD-8526 will differ depending on the instrument to be connected. When you order, please specify which instrument is to be connected.

We would like to output weighing data to a PC and a printer at the same time.

  1. For the GX/GF, GX-K/GF-K, and GP Series
    It is possible to output weighing data through current loop and RS-232C simultaneously by installing a comparator output option that is sold separately.
    – Via the current loop, weighing data can be output to the AD-8121B compact printer.
    – Via the RS-232C, weighing data can be output to a PC.
    – GX/GF Series :   GX-04 (sold separately, factory-installed option)
    – GX-K/GF-K Series :   GX-04K (sold separately)
    – GP Series :   GP-04 (sold separately)

  2. For the FZ-i/FX-i and FZ-CT/FX-CT Series
    It is possible to output weighing data by installing the Quick USB interface (FXi-02) or Ethernet interface (FXi-08) (both sold separately).
    – Via the standard RS-232C interface, weighing data can be output to the AD-8121B compact printer.
    – Via the optional Quick USB interface (FXi-02) or Ethernet interface (FXi-08), weighing data can be output to a PC.

How should we connect a balance or scale to a PLC?

  1. For connection via RS-232C
    Many balances and scales are equipped with an RS-232C interface as standard. Please prepare an RS-232C cable and an RS-232C communication unit on the PLC side.
  2. For connection via BCD
    – AD-4212A/B Series :   AD-4212A-01 (sold separately, BCD output)
    – AD-4212C Series :   AD-8923-BCD (sold separately, extension controlle for production line weighing [with BCD interface])
    – Other balances and scales :   Please use the AD-8922A remote controller and the AD-8922A-01 BCD output option.

Moisture Analyzers MS/MX/MF/ML

General

What is the difference between MS/MX/MF/ML and Karl Fischer type analyzer?

  1. MS/MX/MF/ML is a heating and drying method analyzer that compares weight before and after heating and drying, while a Karl Fischer type analyzer titrates KF reagent that contains iodine to sample electric-chemically.
  2. Karl Fischer method enables a measurement from some ppm to 100% (water), but operation is complicated and the unit is expensive. MS/MX/MF/ML is very easy to handle, needs short time to measure and is reasonably priced.
  3. Where required resolution is under 0.01% MS/MX is more suitable in terms of handling, accuracy and running cost. There is no difference between data obtained with the Karl Fischer method and heating and drying method; however MS/MX is more likely to have better repeatability than a Karl Fischer type.

Accuracy

What does 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.05% and 0.1% of accuracy mean?

These are the variation and repeatability of moisture content rate data where more than 5g of the same sample is tested repeatedly under the same conditions. In statistics it is called standard deviation.

Samples

What is the reagent, Sodium Tartrate Dihydrate like and when is it needed?

Sodium Tartrate Dihydrate is suitable for testing a moisture analyzer itself since its moisture content rate is deemed theoretically. Sodium Tartrate Dihydrate is Sodium Tartrate when chemically bonded to two water molecules or crystal water and becomes Sodium Tartrate again by releasing the water molecules when heated. Its moisture content rate is the ratio of the two water molecules, that is 36.031/230.082=15.66%. This sample is a standard accessory of MS/MX and optional accessory of MF/ML (30g x 12pcs).

Why isn’t the result of 15.66 obtained?

  1. Moisture bonded inside of the material as crystal water is theoretically 15.66%, however ambience has 10%RH ~ 90%RH moisture, which can adhere to the sample in a mechanical fashion. Ambient moisture that is 0.09% can adhere to most samples. Also, moisture and/or impurities left on a pan, accidental errors during measurement, or a combination of both can cause the result to vary between 15.0 and 16.0% in actual measurement.
  2. If the difference between the actual result and 15.66 is large it is concluded that heating temperature may be too low. When Sodium Tartrate Dihydrate is tested, the accuracy of measurement of MS/MX/MF/ML should be set to MID of Standard Mode, with heating temperature of 160C; after pre-heating for 8 minutes, 5g of the sample should be placed on evenly on the pan.

Is Sodium Tartrate Dihydrate safe? Are there any special procedures for handling it? Top

  1. It is perfectly harmless. Sodium Tartrate Dihydrate is used as a flavoring for foods and thus, if eaten it is a safe material, unless more than 218g is ingested (a fatal dose for someone with a body weight of 50 kg). However if it gets on mucosa (i.e. in eyes or up the nose) it should be washed out immediately.
  2. The material does not require special treatment for disposal. It can be disposed of as ordinary burnable waste.

Can Sodium Tartrate Dihydrate be recycled?

No. Moisture once decomposed from crystal of the sample by heat cannot be reconstituted.

Can any material be tested with the analyzer?

  1. Materials that are explosive and/or flammable and/or emit fumes when heated are not suitable to be tested by heating and drying method. Those materials must not be tested with the analyzer.
  2. Materials whose surface gets dried first and forms a membrane that makes pressure inside high must not be tested because they may be dangerous.
  3. Materials whose characteristics are unknown can be 1 or 2 as above and thus, should not be tested.

What is the minimum weight at which moisture content rate can be measured?

In the case of using MS/MX/MF/ML, a sample of more than 0.1g is measurable. The sample mark on the display will light up when sample amount is enough.

What is maximum weight at which moisture content can be measured?

In the case of using MX/MF/ML, samples of less than 51g are measurable. “E” will be displayed if the sample is over 51g. MS-70 can measure samples of up to 71g.

Is it true that the more sample used, the more accurate the measurement will be?

No, that is not true. An excess amount of a sample may not get heated inside evenly, or heating time may take too long. In such cases measurement may not have a high repeatability.

Does the way in which a sample such as powder is placed on a pan affect the measurement result?

Yes. The way a sample is placed on the pan determines heat distribution. To measure moisture content rate accurately, even heating and vaporization are needed so the sample should be flat on the pan.

How do you measure samples with low moisture content?

Due to the heating measurement method, a larger sample size gives better measurement repeatability, and it is better to crush it into small pieces.

How much sample weight is required to measure the PET?

More than 10g of sample size may give a similar measurement result to the Karl Fischer method when measured by MS/MX.

Calibration

Is calibration of the moisture analyzer, MS/MX/MF/ML, with Sodium Tartrate Dihydrate possible?

No. However accuracy check can be done with the sample since moisture content rate of the sample is theoretically fixed. Heating and drying method moisture analyzer weighs sample before and after heating and weight and temperature calibration is possible.

Can a user perform weight and temperature calibration?

Yes (only MS/MX can carry out temperature calibration at 100 and 160 deg. Celsius). Also, the results of these calibrations can be printed out in accordance with GLP, GMP or ISO. 1. For weight calibration the optional accessory calibration mass, 20g, AX-MX-41 is recommended. 2. Use optional accessory temperature calibrator, AX-MX-43, with certification for temperature calibration.

Are traceability system diagram and certificate of measurement available?

Yes both are available upon request.

  1. If it is of the analyzer itself, the certificate covers weight and temperature.
  2. If it is of the calibrator, the certificate only covers temperature calibration; however, the calibrator is sold with a tracability certificate and certificate of measurement provided free of charge.

Miscellaneous

Should I consider moisture in a glass fiber sheet when it is used?

You don’t usually have to. However if you want to be very strict and remove moisture in a sheet dry and the sheet and store it in a desiccator prior to use.

Is absolute measurement of moisture content rate possible? (Can only water content be measured?)

No. Minerals such as metal, glass or sand have only water as moisture content however most samples that is organic matter, depending on temperature, have other materials than water that can vaporize. Also, measurement results depend on heating temperature.

Heating Method

What is the benefit of halogen lamp incorporated in MS/MX/MF/ML?

Heating value per unit of time is higher than with other heating methods, and its useful lifetime is longer. For these reasons a halogen lamp was chosen. And thus, moisture analyzers with halogen lamp can shorten measurement time taken. A halogen lamp emits much more light than other lamps, which is also beneficial when observing the sample while heating.

What is difference between halogen and infrared lamp? How do they relate to each other?

A halogen lamp emits 95 % of light that is within infrared wavelength field and its energy characteristic is basically the same as with infrared lamps.

How fast can moisture analyzer with halogen lamp heat up?

It can heat up the pan up to 200C from the ambient temperature within 2 minutes, much faster than by infrared or sheathed heater method.

What is SRA filter like?

SRA stands for Secondary Radiation Assist and is an innovative heating method A&D developed for the MS/MX/MF/ML moisture analyzer. The old method where a halogen lamp directly heats a sample on a pan cannot heat the sample evenly because of the difference of the varying distance between the lamp and the sample. SRA improves on this and can heat the sample up evenly with the secondary radiated heat by the glass placed under the lamp, which is there in order to emit even heat down to the sample. (Patent pending).

How long is the halogen lamp life?

The halogen lamp will last for more than 5000 hours and is replaceable with AX-MX-34-120V/-240V.

What is the heating pattern?

The heating pattern is selectable from Standard Heating, Quick Heating, Step Heating and Ramp Heating for MS/MX/MF and Standard Heating and Quick Heating for ML.

Measurement

What is the benefit of being able to see inside of the analyzer while heating?

Being able to see inside the analyzer gives users a sense of safety. It is not only water in a sample that can be overheated or is burnable and may be vaporized, but also other materials can be carbonized or decomposed. It is very important for users to check by looking at the sample through Progress Window to evaluate the data.

What is the minimum measurement time?

It depends on the material and moisture content, but because MS/MX/MFML incorporates 400W halogen lamp as the heating source, the pan can be heated from ambient temperature to 200C in only 2 minutes. Also, since an SHS sensor designed for analytical balances is installed, the sensing of the weight of the sample before and after heating is precise and thus requires less sample volume than before. With an appropriate heating temperature and sample mass, measurement can generally be completed within a few to 20 minutes.
Therefore, for the following reasons MS/MX/MF/ML’s heating time and thus also measurement time are shortened.

  1. Heating to a set temperature is fast
  2. Only a very little quantity of sample is needed for measurement.

Are temperatures of sample and displayed one the same?

The displayed temperature is the temperature of right on the pan; that is, of the sample especially when spread on the pan evenly. However, when the sample is placed unevenly or has a hard skin membrane the temperature is of the surface of the sample.
MS/MX/MF/ML does not have a sensor right on the pan but calculates the place where the temperature is assumed to be the one of that on the pan, and puts the sensor there. Temperature calibration is possible by users.

Why is the moisture content rate MS/MX/MF/ML measured less than that which FD-620 measured, and does the former take shorter time to measure?

  1. With FD-620, the temperature displayed is lower than the actual temperature, and therefore it heats in a shorter time and the value can be lower.
  2. MS/MX/MF/ML is an improvement over FD-620 in the sense of sensing the temperature of the pan. That is, the displayed temperature is assumed to be that of the one on the pan. To get the same result from a sample lessen the sample by 1g and set complete condition to HI.

What is highly accurate SHS like?

SHS stands for Super Hybrid Sensor and is a weight sensor that A&D innovated to enable high speed weighing within 1 second and is suitable for analytical balances requiring high resolution and accuracy.
SHS incorporated in the MS/MX/MF/ML moisture analyzer enables the analyzer to capture the dynamic weight and thus, to measure moisture content in a shorter length of time. (Patent pending).

Why do the pans need two handles?

When measurement is required repeatedly hot, the same sample pan should not be used, since as soon as the new sample is put on the hot pan the moisture would start vaporizing, which would in turn make the measurement data inaccurate. To avoid this 2 pans and handles should utilized in turns, which not only enhances measurement repeatability and credibility but also prevents mishaps like burns.

What is the measurement mode?

Measurement mode is selectable from Standard Mode, Automatic Mode, Quick Mode, Timer Mode and Manual Mode to meet your application needs.

Is there a good way to decide what to set as the heating temperature for the sample?

WinCT-Moisture software is the solution to this problem. WinCT-Moisture utilizes the Optimum Temperature Search program RS-Temp that has 6 different heating temperatures for same heating time to offer the “Judgment” of A, B, C, D, E and F criteria, so the user may find out the optimum heating temperature for the sample quickly with just one test measurement.

Data Analysis

Can soybeans or coffee beans be tested as they are?

NO. Usually samples like peas should first be crushed in blender or mill because the temperature of the surface and inside can be very different. When crushed the sample can be heated evenly. Note that when crushing a sample, start the measurement soon because with crushing the sample’s superficial area increases and can absorb moisture from the ambient air.

Can materials like milk or colloids be tested?

Colloids are materials such as solid particles floating on water in milk or colloids that have surface tension and often become dotted. In such cases, let an optional accessory *glass fiber sheet absorb the sample. This improves the repeatability rate and shortens the time taken by one third to a half. Note that the weight of the glass fiber sheet should be tared. AX-MX-32-1/-2.

How should I measure vegetables, seaweeds and mushrooms?

The sample should be typical part of it. The part tested should be taken into consideration when samples have many parts such as vegetables and so forth.

How do you monitor the change of moisture contents?

The WinCT-Moisture software has RS-Fig software to collect the measurement data and show it graphically on a display, to show in an easy to understand format the change in moisture contents against the time lapse.

How do you compare measurements?

The RS-Fig software of WinCT-Moisture can show the measurements on 10 different color lines and the Statistics function gives Maximum, Minimum, Average, SD and CV.

How do you save the measurement data?

When you transmit the measurement data to a PC with the WinCT-Moisture software, it is easy to save the data as a “CSV” file. This “CSV” data file can be easily sent by e-mail and opened with the WinCT-Moisture software again.

WinCT (Windows Communication Tools) Software

Troubleshooting

My computer is not able to receive data.

Please check if the communication setting of WinCT matches the balance in use (baud rate, parity, bit length, stop bit, terminator).
Is the connection made to the correct COM port on the computer? Please use Device Manager to confirm the port on the computer.
Are you using the correct cable? (Please see the question:”What cable should I use to connect my computer and balance?”)
Are you using a balance made by A&D? We don’t guarantee for operations of products made by any manufacturer other than A&D.

My laptop is not equipped with a serial port.

You can connect using enhanced serial port or USB/RS232C converter.

Sometimes I can’t receive data. Why?

When another application is in operation at the same time, it may inhibit communication. Please quit unnecessary applications and turn off Screen Saver and Power Save settings.

Input Buffer Overflowed!” appears on the display during receiving data with RsKey.

Interval setting on your computer is too short to catch up with necessary processing. Make the set time longer.

The balance keeps sending data continuously when started with RsCom.

This happens when Stream mode is set on the balance. Please do not set Stream mode with RsCom.

Applications of use

How can I receive data periodically?

RsCom has a Repeat function enabling periodical reception of data by sending commands periodically. You can also set this function with RsKey by setting its interval in order to take intermittent data when the balance is set to Stream mode.

Is there any limitation of time interval setting to send commands to a balance?

The minimum interval is 0.1 second. There is no maximum limit.

How fast is the maximum sampling speed for data acquisition?

It depends on which type of balance you use. The display refresh rate of the balance shows its maximum sampling speed. (e.g. GX: maximum 10 times/sec.).

Is it possible to collect data from multiple balances?

Yes. Start multiple RsComs to collect data from multiple balances. However, your computer needs to be equipped with serial ports in the same number as the balances you want to connect. RsKey cannot be used for multiple connections.

Can I have the source program of WinCT, please?

We are sorry, but the source program is our proprietary material and is not to be disclosed. WinCT is created with Visual Basic, and serial communication is made possible by using Visual Basic communication control.

Specifications

What kind of software is WinCT?

This software enables collection of data by connecting RS232C interface on A&D’s balance to a serial port (COM port) on a computer. WinCT consists of two application programs, RsCom and RsKey.

What can RsCom do?

RsCom enables your computer to receive data from balances by sending commands to balances. (Periodical reception of data is possible using the Repeat function.).

What can RsKey do?

RsKey enables transmission of data received from balances into applications such as Excel. The data can be directly processed in such applications.

Which OS is operational with WinCT?

What cable should I use to connect my computer and balance?

Use a commercial connecting cable for modem (also called straight cable or normal cable). Please check the shape of terminals on the balance and computer in use. You can also purchase them from A&D.

Indicators / Load Cells

What is a "load cell?"

Where are load cells used?

What are the benefits of using load cells?

What kinds of load cells exist?

How does a load cell conduct measurements?

What is the life-span of a load cell?

How should we use load cells?

How should we select a load cell?

How much does a load cell cost?

Do I have to recalibrate after changing weighing indicator settings such as the capacity or minimum scale value?

What is a digital load cell?

How is the output of a digital load cell different from that of an analog load cell?

What is digital output?

Please refer to What is digital output?

Are digital load cells compatible?

What about wiring errors?

Please refer to What about wiring errors?

What cables are used for digital load cells?

Is there a difference in the four corner adjustment methods for analog and digital load cells?

Is it easy to identify which digital load cell is malfunctioning?

When considering the applied voltage of load cells, is the higher the better?